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What is the current state of electrode materials

wallpapers Tech 2021-01-07
With the rapid development of society, people's demand for energy continues to increase, hoping to find renewable green energy. In addition, in order to achieve efficient energy storage devices, 3D printing is being widely used in the electrochemical field. Because it can be used to produce electrodes with a porous structure, providing additional channels for electrolyte penetration, resulting in better battery capacity, and 3D printing can achieve rapid prototyping and relatively low cost, so it has attracted wide attention.
 
3D printing technology, including fused deposition modeling (FDM), inkjet printing (Inkjetting), selective laser melting (SLM) and stereolithography (SLA), etc. Especially in the past few years, there has been a lot of research using 3D printing to create electrodes/devices for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Experts have made considerable progress in this field, but there are still many challenges and shortcomings that need to be resolved. .
 
Current status of electrode materials
 
Electrode, as a component that inputs or draws current in a conductive medium, has been constantly adjusting its composition and the chemical reactions it produces for many years in pursuit of better battery performance. The commonly used electrode materials include metals, metal oxides, metal carbides, metal sulfides, carbon-based materials, conductive polymers, metal-organic framework materials (MOFs) and their composite materials.
 
Among them, carbon-based materials, such as graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are one of the most commonly used electrode materials for flexible transparent conductive electrodes (FTC's), with excellent electrical, optical and mechanical properties. High-quality graphene is widely used in the preparation of FTC's due to its good electrical conductivity, strong mechanical flexibility, high optical transparency and good chemical stability. At present, there are mainly two methods for preparing thin-film electrodes by 3D printing technology: the extrusion method and the inkjet method. Although the working principles of the two methods are relatively similar, the properties of the ink used are quite different. Due to the increasing demand for three-dimensional electrode construction, the preparation of 3D printing graphene/graphite electrode materials mostly uses direct writing ink printing methods (extrusion).
 
However, due to the low resolution of this technology, which is usually greater than 200 µm, it can only realize some simple 3D structures such as grids and interdigital structures, which limits its application. In addition, for packaging and transportation, the mechanical properties of this 3D carbon material are also indispensable, but previous research has paid less attention.
 
Based on the above considerations, the development of a new type of 3D printed electrode with higher precision and unique structural design will be very promising, which will bring excellent mechanical and electrochemical properties.

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